Independence Day India : Four things you should know about Partition and this historically important day

Independence Day India is a highly significant public holiday that marks the major turning point the country became independent from the Uk. This has been announced officially on August 15, 1947, making the 72nd Independence Day of this India.

India not just to become independent on this day, but India and Pakistan were separated.

Partition witnessed the dispersion of billions and street protests, the impacts of which persist today for both countries.




How Has India Become Independent?


India has confronted many uprisings over the course of history. Although most of the intruders make their expectations clear right from the beginning, the British managed to bring India under their control via a business enterprise. It all began with the British East India Company, which began as a mere combined-stock business, but eventually spread its fins and impact before the British government finally took control over the entire nation.

The British company had arrived as traders in India in the early seventeenth century but started to interfere in Indian matters all over the 1750s. It began to convert from a trading business into a ruling force after Plassey's battle (1757).
As the British started to spread their tendrils over much of India, the exploitation of community resources and people started in full force. The British were worried about reorganizing their rule and strength.

The British rule had a detrimental effect on Indians ' cultural, economic and political life, eventually forcing popular masses and leaders to rise up in uprising against the British rule. Several industrial, racial, and political rebellions tore out against the British rule, but it was the 1857 revolt that proved to be a launch pad for all subsequent difficulties against British rule.

The ever-increasing knowledge, contact with the outside country, and the encouragement to free the mother country give rise to an ideological movement by the end of the nineteenth century that displaced British rule in 1947.

The History of British Colonialism in India 


The British gained the respect of several local leaders during the fall of the Mughal Empire by providing them help against their opponents. Since the British were equipped with large cannons and major war innovations, their support confirmed helpful to many Indian rulers. The East India Company managed to create trading hubs in locations like Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay in exchange for their support. The British eventually began to lengthen their fortification. When Siraj-ud-daulah, Bengal's Nawab, ask them to stop their modification, they defeated him in the Battle of Plassey (1757). This victory against Siraj-ud-daulah played an important role in conquering India as a whole.

Early Rebellions Against the British Rule


Many Indian rulers supported the British colonization in India for their short-term benefit, but many of them opposed the idea of foreign rule. This created a conflict between Indian rulers, which was further exploited to their advantage by the British. South Indian rulers such as Puli Thevar, Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan, Pazhassi Raja, Rani Velu Nachiyar, Veerapandiya Kattabomman, Dheeran Chinnamalai, Maruthu Pandiyar, etc., revolted against the British and fought several wars and battles. 
Many rulers like Hyder Ali and Dheeran Chinnamalai have enlisted the help of Maratha leaders in their battle against the British.

Agitated by the ill-impact of British rule on the social, cultural, tribal, and economic fabric of society, many people like Sidhu Murmu, Kanhu Murmu, and Tilka Manjhi stood up against British colonization.

While the British did manage to defeat bigger rulers like Tipu Sultan through local alliances (supporting one ruler against the other), they did not have to have problems suppressing regional agrarian and tribal rebellions. Not only did the British use better weapons, but they also resorted to devious tactics such as the' divide and rule policy' to consolidate their rule and power.

Although the British did their best to suppress rebellions across India, these revolts would not stop as the British not only given access citizens to foreign rule but also financially exploited workers.

The Revolt of 1857


Often referred to as the ' First War of Indian Independence, ' the 1857 revolt was the result of a series of incidents, but the immediate reason for the revolt was the issue of ' greased cartridges. ' The East India Company mistreated Indian soldiers and discriminated between Indian and European soldiers. While the soldiers knew the British were using factors such as religion and caste against them, the news of the newly introduced Enfield P-53 rifles using cartridges made of fat extracted from beef and pork sparked a widespread rebellion against the British. Since the soldiers had to bite the cartridge to load the rifle, it didn't go well with the Hindu and Muslim soldiers as it hurt their religious belief. Since consuming beef and pork is contrary to the religious beliefs of Hindus and Muslims respectively, the allegation convinced Indian soldiers that the British were trying to convert them into Christians.

This, along with many other factors, played an important role in the soldiers ' revolt. Many Indian leaders from various states followed suit and locked horns with the British. At the end of it all, at least 800,000 people have been killed, including civilians. The British government gained control of India's government from the East India Company as a result of the rebellion.


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Organized Movements


The 1857 revolt was the first huge-scale revolt against British rule and inspired the future generation to fight for the motherland's independence. Gently and gradually many organizations were formed that began to demand some sort of self-governance and Indian rights.

Dadabhai Naoroji founded the East India Association in 1867, while Surendranath Banerjee founded the Indian National Association in 1876.

With more and more people who come up with the growth for even more rights, several prominent figures came forward and decided to form a platform that will demand self-rights and self-governance. It led to the formation of the National Indian Congress in 1885.

Since the British fail to grant even the moderate needs set by Congress, many Indians began to question Congress ' moderate leaders and advocated a more radical approach to dealing with the British, which gave rise to several revolutionary organizations advocating the use of force and violence.

Works by socio-religious groups such as Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj played an important role in creating awareness between many Indians. Reformers ' works like Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, and Subramanya Bharathy evoked a sense of national pride between many Indians.

The Rising of Nationalism


Radical leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak immediately pushed for Indians to self-rule. Tilak was also saddened by the fact that the British government's education system did not portray India's history and culture in a positive light. He advocated total freedom (Swaraj) and managed to inspire many Indians with his famous slogan, "Swaraj is my birthright and I will have it." He was joined by other like-minded leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai. The trio together came to be known as' Lal-Bal-Pal,' but for advocating violence and disorder they were expelled from Congress. They had done enough, however, to instill nationalism in the minds of thousands of Indians.


The Partition of Bengal


Since pre-independent Bengal was as big as France in terms of its geography, the then Viceroy and Governor-General, Lord Curzon, ordered Bengal's partition in 1905. He argued that partitioning would lead to better administration and ease the rising conflict between the Hindus and the Muslims. However, the Indian nationalists believed that the move was an attempt to slow down the momentum gathered by the recent nationalist movements. 

They also believed that Lord Curzon used the policy of divide and rule to create a rift between Hindus and Muslims. This led to a large-scale protest against the British rule, including boycotting British products and publishing several rebellious newspapers and articles. In 1911, the government was eventually forced to reunite Bengal. But soon afterward a new partition was created, based on the languages spoken. Bengal's partition left an indelible mark on Bengal's people and political scenario.

Independence Day India



The Rise of the Muslim League


Syed Ahmed Khan, an Islamic reformist and philosopher, founded the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886. The conference was set up in an attempt to provide Indian Muslims with quality education. Slowly and gradually, the Muslim League began to propagate the theory that the Indian National Congress was a pro-Hindu outfit and that the political party was unable to ensure equal rights for the Muslim community in India. This belief found many takers, and slowly and gradually more and more Muslim leaders began to contemplate the idea of creating another political entity where Muslims would form the majority.

National Movement & the First World War


The national movement began picking-up at the end of the nineteenth century and by the turn of the new century, it had gathered a critical mass that would propel it further in the coming years. More and more people joined hands with nationalist leaders and Congress to raise the demand for self-rule. Led by leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, more and more commoners began protesting against the British government.

Although the Indian National Congress still advocated the importance of British rule, people had begun to participate in mass movements, which inspired others as well. Meanwhile, just before the beginning of the First World War, the British government promised special benefits to India in return for their support during the First World War. In the First World War, as many as 1.3 million Indian soldiers were sent to places like the Middle East, Europe, and Africa to fight for the British. Also, by sending large supplies of money, food and ammunition, many individual rulers from different princely states supported the British.

The Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi


Independence Day India GandhiGandhi had mastered civil disobedience methods through non-violent means in South Africa, where he worked as a barrister. In 1914, General Jan Smuts released many political prisoners thanks to the non-violent protests of Gandhi. Impressed by his methods, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a prominent leader of the Indian National Congress, asked Gandhi to return to India and join the national movement. Upon his arrival, Gandhi joined the National Indian Congress and accepted Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his mentor. He then set up Satyagraha ashram and led a Satyagraha campaign in 1917.

Gandhiji led many non-violent protests for the next three years, including Satyagraha and fasting. The Kheda Satyagraha and the Champaran satyagraha were some of the early movements in which he applied the concept of Satyagraha to fight for the rights of farmers and other peasants.

The Non-Cooperation Movement


In 1919, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer ordered to shoot at a peaceful gathering of men, women, and children in Jallianwala Bagh, who had gathered to celebrate Baisakhi and condemn the arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satya Pal. This inhuman British act sent shockwaves across India, receiving strong criticism and protest across India. Mahatma Gandhi also denounced this cowardly behavior and strongly condemned it.

The national movement was slowly building up and the Jallianwalah Bagh incident played an important role in the start of the ' Non-cooperation Movement. ' It was the first major Satyagraha movement under Gandhi's leadership. He requested the support of other political and religious leaders and called on the Indians to stop using British products.

Gandhiji advocated using Khadi over British textiles. He also asked government officials to quit their jobs and return the British titles and honors. Many Indians refused to pay taxes and many teachers and lawyers gave up their profession. The non-cooperation movement became a huge success throughout India until it was called off by Gandhiji in the wake of the Chauri Chaura incident in which three civilians and 22 policemen were killed.

The non-cooperation movement had witnessed unprecedented and large-scale participation from the people of all regions and status. The whole country was transformed into a different zone and the protests were largely successful, but the unfortunate incident at Chauri Chaura forced Gandhi to call off the movement. He said that people were still not ready for mass-movements of this nature.

The decision to call off the non-cooperation movement left many disappointed and was criticized by several leaders.

Revolutionary Movement & its Role in Freedom Movement


While the Indian National Congress, led by leaders like Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mahatma Gandhi, advocated civil disobedience and non-violent protests, many firebrand leaders believed in the use of force to overthrow the British. The revolutionary movement had begun as early as the late 1750s, but it began to take shape during the Bengal Partition. Under Barin Ghosh's leadership, many revolutionaries began collecting arms and explosives. They even started producing bombs and some were even sent to foreign countries to acquire knowledge about bomb-making and other military training.

By 1924, the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was formed and revolutionaries such as Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Ashfaqullah Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Shivaram Rajguru, Surya Sen, etc. 

They began to engage in various revolutionary activities. Some of the famous revolutionary activities include Alipore bomb conspiracy, Chittagong armor raid, Kakori train robbery, Delhi-Lahore conspiracy case, etc.

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Azand Hind Fauz


Subhas Chandra Bose left the Indian National Congress and traveled to many countries to seek help for India's independence. Bose wanted to raise an Indian army to fight the British. He went to Japan on the advice of Hitler and formed the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Government). The Indian National Army managed to capture Andaman and Nicobar islands with the help of the Japanese army during World War II. However, the INA's prospects were also affected by the setback to Japan in the Second World War and its march was blocked on the border and many soldiers and officers were arrested.

Quit India Movement


As the Second World War progressed, Mahatma Gandhi intensified his protests for India's complete independence. He drew up a resolution calling for the British to quit India. The ' Quit India Movement ' or ' Bharat Chhodo Andolan ' was the most aggressive movement launched by the National Indian Congress. Gandhi was arrested on 9 August 1942 and held in Pune's Aga Khan Palace for two years. The Quit India Movement came to an end by the end of 1943, when the British gave hints that full power would be transferred to the people of India. Gandhi called off the movement that resulted in the release of 100,000 political prisoners.

Partition & Independence of India


Although prominent leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were not willing to accept the religious-based partition formula, communal clashes between religious groups accelerated Pakistan's creation. The Congress accepted the independence cum partition proposal offered by the British Cabinet Mission in 1946. Sardar Patel convinced Gandhi that this was the only way to avoid civil war, and the Mahatma gave his consent tentatively. The British Parliament passed the famous 1947 Indian Independence Act, and on August 14, Pakistan had declared a free nation. A few minutes later, at 12:02, India became a democratic nation, much to the joy and relief of the entire Indian subcontinent.

Following India's independence, Gandhiji focused on peace and unity among Hindus and Muslims. He started a fast-to-death in Delhi, demanding that all communal violence be stopped and that the payment of Rs. 55 crores be made to Pakistan under the agreement of the Partition Council. Ultimately, all political leaders agreed to his wishes.

The Constituent Assembly was given the responsibility to create the constitution. The constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949, headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. India's Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950.

History of Indias Independence Mahatma Gandhi
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The Partition of India


After the signing of the Independence Bill, colonial India was agreed to be divided into two separate states – one with a Muslim majority (Pakistan) and the other with a Hindu majority (India).

The two countries are celebrating on different days because Lord Mountbatten had to attend the Pakistan celebration on August 14th and then travel to Delhi for India's first independence day on August 15th.

The partition saw over 14 million people displaced and resulted in the death of up to two million people, creating one of the greatest refugee crises in history and a hostile relationship between the divided nations. Riots and fighting were rife, especially in the western region of Punjab as it was cut in two by the border.

During this time, Mahatma Gandhi died. A Hindu fanatic assassinated him during a prayer vigil to an area of Muslim-Hindu violence in January 1948.

How is the day celebrated?


Pageants, parades, and flag-hoisting ceremonies can be expected across the country. Many official buildings will be adorned with lights, and kite flying is common, especially in Delhi. Many will wear the colors of the nation-green, orange and white-and some will even decorate their homes in this way.

Of course, the celebrations are not just isolated from India. The day is recognized by people around the world, so celebrations can be expected in the vast majority of countries.

The prime minister gives the nation an address and raises the Indian flag following a military march. This is taking place in Red Fort, Delhi.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi's speech


Prime Minister Narendra Modi is expected to mark the day with an address to the Red Fort nation, Delhi, announcing the launch of the government-funded healthcare program called the Ayushman Bharat National Health Protection Scheme.

The program is being promoted as the largest health protection scheme in the world, with the full roll-out of ' Modicare ' expected to be announced from 25 September onwards.

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